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Peer reviewed journal articles

Baird, B., Mota-Rolim, S., & Dresler, M. (2019). The cognitive neuroscience of lucid dreaming. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 100, 305-323.


Lee, M., Baird, B., Gosseries, O., Nieminen, J. O., Boly, M., Postle, B. R., Tononi, G., & Lee, S. W. (2019). Connectivity differences between consciousness and unconsciousness in non-rapid eye movement sleep: a TMS–EEG study. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 5175.


Baird, B., Castelnovo, A., Gosseries, O., Tononi, G. (2018). Frequent lucid dreaming associated with increased functional connectivity between frontopolar cortex and temporoparietal association areas. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 17798.


Baird, B., Riedner, B.A., Boly, M., Davidson, R.J., Tononi, G. (2018). Increased lucid dream frequency in long-term meditators but not following MBSR training. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research and Practice, 6(1), 40. 

Baird, B., Castelnovo, A., Riedner, B.A., Ferrarelli, F., Boly, M., Davidson, R.J., & Tononi, G. (2018). Human rapid eye movement sleep shows local increases in low-frequency oscillations and global decreases in high-frequency oscillations compared to resting wakefulness. eNeuro, 4(5), ENEURO-0293.


Laberge, S.*, Baird, B.*, Zimbardo, P. G. (2018). Smooth tracking of visual targets distinguish lucid REM sleep dreaming and perception from imagination. Nature Communications, 9, 3298.

*Co-first author


LaBerge, S., LaMarca, K., Baird, B. (2018). Pre-sleep treatment with galantamine stimulates lucid dreaming: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. PLoS ONE, 13(8), e0201246.


Gu, S., Cieslak, M., Baird, B., Muldoon, S., Grafton, S., Pasqualetti, F., & Bassett, D. S. (2018). The energy landscape of neurophysiological activity implicit in brain network structure. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 2507.


Siclari, F.*, Baird, B.*, Perogamvros, L., Bernardi, G., LaRocque, J. J., Riedner, B., ... & Tononi, G. (2017). The neural correlates of dreaming. Nature Neuroscience, 20(6), 872-878.

*Co-first author


Perogamvros, L., Baird, B., Seibold, M., Riedner, B., Boly, M., & Tononi, G. (2017). The phenomenal contents and neural correlates of spontaneous thoughts across wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(10), 1766-1777.


Elliott, J. C., Baird, B., Giesbrecht, B. (2016). Consciousness isn’t all-or-none: Evidence for partial awareness during the attentional blink. Consciousness and Cognition, 40, 79-85.


Baird, B., Cieslak, M., Grafton, S., & Schooler, J. (2014). Regional white matter variation associated with domain-specific metacognitive accuracy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(3), 440-452.


Baird, B., Mrazek, M., Phillips, D. T., & Schooler, J. W. (2014). Domain-specific enhancement of metacognitive ability following meditation training. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(5), 1972-1979.


Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Lutz, A., Schooler, J. W. (2014). The decoupled mind: Mind-wandering disrupts cortical phase-locking to perceptual events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(11), 2596-2607. 


Smallwood, J., Krzysztof, G., Golchert, J., Ruby, F., Engen, H., Baird, B., Vinski, M., Schooler, J. W., Margulies, D. S. (2013). The default modes of reading: Modulation of posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex connectivity associated with subjective and objective differences in reading experience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 734.


Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Gorgolewski, K., & Margulies, D. M. (2013). Medial and lateral networks in anterior prefrontal cortex support metacognitive ability for memory and perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(42), 16657-16665.


Franklin, M.S., Mooneyham, B., Baird, B., &  Schooler, J. (2013). Thinking one thing, saying another: The behavioral correlates of mind-wandering while reading aloud. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(1), 205-210.


Baird, B., Schooler, J. W., Mrazek, M., Fishman, D., & Smallwood, J. (2013). Unnoticed intrusions: Dissociations of meta-consciousness in thought suppression. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3), 1003-1012.


Smallwood, J., Tipper, C., Brown, K., Baird, B., Engen, H., Michaels, J., Grafton, S., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Escaping the here and now: A role for the default mode network in cognition that is independent of perception. Neuroimage, 69, 120–125.


Mrazek, D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity & GRE performance while reducing mind-wandering.  Psychological Science, 24(5), 776-781.


Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Mrazek, M., Franklin, M., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Inspired by distraction: Mind-wandering facilitates creative incubation. Psychological Science, 23(10), 1117-1122.

*Featured in Nature News and Comment


Smallwood, J., Brown, K., Baird, B., Mrazek, M., Franklin, M., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Insulation for daydreams: A role for tonic norepinephrine in the facilitation of internally guided thought.  PLoS ONE, 7(4), e33706.


Mrazek, M., Smallwood, J., Franklin, M., Chin, J., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). The role of mind-wandering in measurements of general aptitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 788-798.


Smallwood, J., Brown, K., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Cooperation between the default mode network and the frontal-parietal network in the production of an internal train of thought. Brain Research, 1428, 60-70.


Baird, B., Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2011). Back to the future: Autobiographical planning and the functionality of mind-wandering.  Consciousness and Cognition, 20(4), 1604-1611.



Book chapters


Baird, B., Erlacher, D., Czisch, M., Spoormaker, V.I., Dresler, M. (2019). Consciousness and meta-consciousness during sleep. In Elsevier handbook of sleep research.


Mota-Rolim, S.A., Baird, B., & Dresler, M. (2019). Neurobiology of lucid dreaming. In Dreams: Understanding biology, psychology, and culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.


Schooler, J.W., Mrazek, M.D., Baird, B., & Winkielman, P. (2015). Minding the mind: The value of distinguishing between unconscious, conscious, and meta-conscious processes. In P. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology. Vol. 1: Attitudes and social cognition (pp. 179-202). Washington, DC: APA Press.


Schooler, J. W., Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Baird, B., Mooneyham, B. W., Zedelius, C., & Broadway, J. M. (2014). The middle way: Finding the balance between mindfulness and mind-wandering. In B.H Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation, (Vol. 60) (pp.1-33). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.